A caridade começa em casa – Charity begins at home
A curiosidade matou o gato– Curiosity killed the cat
A melhor defesa é o ataque – The best defence is a good offense.
Água mole em pedra dura, tanto dá até que fura – Constant dropping wears the stone.
Portugal officially the Portuguese Republic República Portuguesa is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The official and national language is Portuguese. Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples, visited by Phoenicians-Carthaginians, Ancient Greeks and ruled by the Romans, who were followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples. After the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, most of its territory was part of Al-Andalus. Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede (1128). The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique (1139), and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora (1143). In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global maritime and commercial empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would become Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country’s occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822) erased to a great extent Portugal’s prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution (1974), ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China (1999) marked the end of what can be considered one of the longest-lived colonial empires in history.
The Azores officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal (along with Madeira). It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the Macaronesia region of the North Atlantic Ocean, about 1,400 km (870 mi) west of Lisbon, about 1,500 km (930 mi) northwest of Morocco, and about 1,930 km (1,200 mi) southeast of Newfoundland, Canada. Its main industries are agriculture, dairy farming, livestock, fishing, and tourism, which is becoming the major service activity in the region. The government of the Azores employs a large percentage of the population directly or indirectly in the service and tertiary sectors. The main city of the Azores is Ponta Delgada. The culture, dialect, cuisine, and traditions of the Azorean islands vary considerably, because these remote islands were settled sporadically over a span of two centuries.
The Historic villages of Portugal (Aldeias Históricas de Portugal) are a group of 12 villages classified under a 1991 government program called The Historic Villages Program (Programa de Aldeias Históricas). The aim of the program was to restore and promote a series of ancient villages/human settlements important to the history of Portugal. Starting in 1991 the government included 10 villages located in the Beira Interior.
The Algarve is the southernmost region of continental Portugal. It has an area of 4,997 km2 (1,929 sq mi) with 451,006 permanent inhabitants, and incorporates 16 municipalities (concelho or município in Portuguese). Production of food, which includes fish and other seafood, different types of fruit and veggies such as oranges, figs, plums, carob pods, almonds, tomatoes, cauliflowers, strawberries and raspberries, are also economically important in the region. Although Lisbon surpasses the Algarve in terms of tourism revenue, the Algarve is still, overall, considered to be the biggest and most important Portuguese tourist region, having received an estimated total of 7.1 million tourists in 2017. Its population triples in the peak holiday season due to seasonal residents.
Bragança is a city and municipality in north-eastern Portugal, capital of the district of Bragança, in the Terras de Trás-os-Montes subregion of Portugal. The population in 2011 was 35,341, in an area of 1173.57 km².
Bombarral is a municipality in the District of Leiria in central Portugal. The population in 2011 was 13,193, in an area of 91.29 km².
Bacalhoa Buddha Eden
Bacalhoa Buddha Eden – The oriental garden with around 35 hectares of land was created as a reaction to the destruction of the Buddhas of Banyan, in which one of the greatest acts of cultural barbarity took place, erasing masterpieces of late-period Gandhara art. From Buddhas, pagodas, terracotta statues and the various carefully-placed sculptures which can be found throughout the gardens, it is estimated that some six thousand tons of marble and granite were used to create this monumental work of art. The central staircase is the focal point of the garden, where the golden Buddhas offer you a calm welcome. At the central lake, KOI (Japanese carp) fish can be seen, and sculpted dragons rise out of the water. There is also the opportunity to see the six hundred hand-painted terracotta soldiers, each of them unique copies of those which were buried some 2,200 years ago. The Modern and Contemporary Sculpture Garden provides a space in nature to appreciate modern art within a tranquil set¬ting. Nestled within the plants and trees are monumental works selected from the Berardo Collection by various renowned artists such as Alexander Calder, Fernando Botero, Tony Cragg, Lynn Chadwick, Allen Jones and many others. This open-air gallery has works being introduced and replaced on a regular basis giving the visitor something new and interesting to see. The African Sculpture Garden is dedicated to the Shona people of Zimbabwe who have been hand-sculpting stone into works of art for nearly a thousand years. The Shona believe in ancestral spirits known as “Vadzimu”. In their sculptures they demonstrate the unity be¬tween these two worlds, the physical and the spiritual. These incredible stone carvers hold firm to the belief that every stone has a life spirit and it is that ‘life spirit’ that influences what sculp¬ture that stone will become. It is the artist’s job to “release the spirit from the stone”. There are over 200 sculptures on display surrounded by the shade of a 1000 palms.
Batalha is a town and a municipality in Leiria District, Pinhal Litoral Subregion, Centro Region, Portugal. The town’s name means “battle”. The municipality population in 2011 was 15,805, in an area of 103.42 square kilometres (39.93 sq mi). The town proper has about 7,500 inhabitants. The municipality is limited to the North and West by the municipality of Leiria, to the East by Ourém, to the Southeast by Alcanena and to the Southwest by Porto de Mós. The town was founded by King D. João I of Portugal, jointly with the Monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória na Batalha, to pay homage to the Portuguese victory at the Battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385) that put an end to the 1383–1385 Crisis.
Castelo de Vide
Castelo de Vide is a municipality in Portugal, with a population of 3,407 inhabitants in 2011, in an area of 264.91 square kilometres (102.28 sq mi).
Vila Nova de Cerveira is a municipality in the district of Viana do Castelo in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 9,253, in an area of 108.47 km².
Coimbra is a city and a municipality in Portugal. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment of the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages.
Ericeira is a civil parish and seaside community on the western coast of Portugal (in Mafra municipality, about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northwest of Lisbon) considered the surfing capital of Europe for being the only European spot among the World Surfing Reserves and due to the exceptional coastline conditions for the practice of Surf.
The Peneda-Gerês National Park also known simply as Gerês, is the oldest and biggest national park in Portugal and is located in the Viana do Castelo, Braga, and Vila Real Districts. It was created on 8 May 1971 due to its national and international scientific interest, with the aim to protect the soil, water, flora, fauna, and landscape, while preserving its value to the existent human and natural resources. Education and tourism are also goals of the park.
Guimarães is a city and municipality located in northern Portugal, in the district of Braga. Its historic town centre is listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001, in recognition for being an “exceptionally well-preserved and authentic example of the evolution of a medieval settlement into a modern town” in Europe. Guimarães is also a part of the Ave Subregion (one of the most industrialised subregions in the country), as well as the historical Minho Province. The city has a population of 52,181 inhabitants. The population of the municipality in 2011 was 158,124, in an area of 240.95 square kilometres (93.03 sq mi). The city was settled in the 9th century, at which time it was called Vimaranes. This denomination might have had its origin in the warrior Vímara Peres, who chose this area as the main government seat for the County of Portugal which he conquered for the Kingdom of Galicia. Guimarães has a significant historical importance due to the role it played in the foundation of Portugal. The city is often referred to as the “birthplace of Portugal” or “the cradle city” (Cidade Berço in Portuguese) because it is widely believed that Portugal’s first King, Afonso Henriques, was born there, and also due to the fact that the Battle of São Mamede – which is considered the seminal event for the foundation of the Kingdom of Portugal – was fought in the vicinity of the city.
Leça de Balio
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. It is mainland Europe’s westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean and the River Tagus. The westernmost portions of its metro area, the Portuguese Riviera, form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, culminating at Cabo da Roca. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, and the second-oldest European capital city (after Athens), predating other modern European capitals by centuries. Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. After the fall of the Roman Empire it was ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century; later it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147 Afonso Henriques conquered the city and since then it has been the political, economic and cultural center of Portugal.
Madeira officially Região Autónoma da Madeira is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal, the other being the Azores. It is an archipelago situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia, just under 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the north of the Canary Islands and 520 kilometres (320 mi) west of Morocco. Madeira is geologically located on the African Tectonic Plate, though the archipelago is culturally, economically and politically European. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, which is located on the main island’s south coast. Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Age of Discovery.
Marvão is a municipality in Portalegre District in Portugal. Perched on a quartzite crag of the Serra de São Mamede, Marvão’s name is derived from an 8th-century Muwallad rebel, named Ibn Marwan. Ibn Marwan, who constructed the Castle of Marvão – likely on the site of an earlier Roman watchtower – as a power base when establishing an independent statelet (“emirate”, duchy) – covering much of modern-day Portugal – during the Emirate of Cordoba (884-931 CE). The castle and walled village were further fortified through the centuries, notably under Sancho II of Portugal (13th century) and Denis of Portugal. Nobel prize-winning author José Saramago wrote of the village ‘‘From Marvão one can see the entire land… It is understandable that from this place, high up in the keep at Marvão Castle, visitors may respectfully murmur, ‘How great is the world.’’. In the 1950s, author Huldine V. Beamish wrote of Marvão ‘There is an atmosphere about the district (of Marvão) that is very ancient. At times you have the same peculiar feelings as those evoked by Stonehenge and that amazing druid monument at Callernish in the Isle of Lewis. Picking your way along the steep stony pathways, you would not be at all surprised to meet a Phoenician trader or Roman Soldier. It would be the most natural thing in the world.
Mértola is a municipality in southeastern Portuguese Alentejo near the Spanish border. The seat of the municipality is the town of Mértola, which has around 2800 inhabitants (2011), located on a hill over the Guadiana River. Its strategic location made it an important fluvial commercial port in Classical Antiquity, through the period of Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Mértola’s main church (the Church of Nossa Senhora da Anunciação) was the only medieval mosque to have survived the period in Portugal.
Nazaré is a municipality located in the Oeste region and Leiria District of Portugal. It is one of the most popular seaside resorts in the Silver Coast (Costa de Prata). The population in 2011 was 15,158 in an area of 82.43 km². The town consists of three neighbourhoods: Praia (along the beach), Sítio (an old village, on top of a cliff) and Pederneira (another old village, on a hilltop). Praia and Sítio are linked by the Nazaré Funicular, a funicular railway.
Óbidos is a town and a municipality in the Leiria District of Portugal. The name “Óbidos” is a Latinised (oppidum, citadel) derivation of the older Celtic “Eburobricio”. The municipality had its growth from a Roman settlement near the foothills of an elevated escarpment. The region of Óbidos, extending from the Atlantic to the interior of Estremadura Province along the rivers and lakes has been inhabited since the late Paleolithic. A settlement was constructed by early Celt tribes, that was later a centre of trade for the Phoenicians. Archeological evidence from the base of the medieval tower (south of Facho) at Óbidos Castle indicates Roman construction linked to an outpost of the Roman civitas of Eburobrittium, a large urban area that has been under excavation. Archeological surveys determined the remains of a forum, baths and other Roman structures near the settlement. After the fall of Rome, the region came under the influence of the Visigoths, although specific records are missing. The Roman town of Eburobrittium was abandoned in the 5th century for the more secure hilltop where today the principal settlement is located. Sometime after 713 the Moors established a fortification on this mountain, while a Christian community of Mozarabs lived in the Moncharro neighbourhood. The area was taken from the Moors by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques, in 1148. Tradition states that one knight, Gonçalo Mendes da Maia, was responsible for the successful storming of the Moorish castle. The retaking of Óbidos was a final stage in the conquest of the Estremadura Province region, after the settlements of Santarém, Lisbon and Torres Vedras. Following the control of the region, the settlement received its first foral (charter) in 1195, during the reign of King Sancho I. In 1210, King Afonso II gave the title of this village to Queen Urraca. Since then, Óbidos has often been patronized by the Queens of Portugal, giving rise to its informal title as Vila das Rainhas (English: town of the Queens); several royal consorts enriched the village with donations from the Middle Ages until the 16th century.
The Historic villages of Portugal (Aldeias Históricas de Portugal) are a group of 12 villages classified under a 1991 government program called The Historic Villages Program (Programa de Aldeias Históricas). The aim of the program was to restore and promote a series of ancient villages/human settlements important to the history of Portugal. Starting in 1991 the government included 10 villages located in the Beira Interior in the Historic Villages program: Almeida, Castelo Mendo, Castelo Novo, Castelo Rodrigo, Idanha-a-Velha, Linhares da Beira, Marialva, Monsanto, Piódão, Sortelha. An additional 2 villages were added to the program in 2003: Belmonte e Trancoso
Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal and one of the Iberian Peninsula’s major urban areas. Porto city is small compared to its metropolitan area, with a population of 237,559 people. Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, and its core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996, as “Historic Centre of Porto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar”. The historic area is also a National Monument of Portugal. The western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, when it was an outpost of the Roman Empire. Its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name Portugal, based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto (“the port” or “the harbor”), which is where its English name “Oporto” comes from.
Porto Covo is one of the two civil parishes in the municipality of Sines, located along the western Alentejo coast of Portugal, about 170 km (110 mi) south of Lisbon. Known for its beaches and ties to the ocean, the name Porto Covo likely translates as port of the covos, the term covo referring to a fishing net, used for capturing lobsters and crabs.
Reguengos de Monsaraz
Reguengos de Monsaraz is a municipality in Évora District in Portugal. Reguengos de Monsaraz is the second largest city in the district of Évora (the largest city in the suburban area of Évora), constituting one of the four municipalities that make up the suburban area of Évora, which are Arraiolos, Montemor-o-Novo, Reguengos de Monsaraz and Viana of the Alentejo.
Tarouca is a municipality and a city in Viseu District in Norte Region and Douro Subregion in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 8,046, in an area of 100.08 km². Salzedas – Situada na margem direita do rio Varosa tem como principal actividade a agricultura (azeite, vinho, baga de sabugueiro, milho, centeio, batata e árvores de fruto). É uma aldeia vinhateira do Douro.
Tomar is a city and a municipality in the Santarém district of Portugal. The town proper has a population of about 20,000. The town of Tomar was born inside the walls of the Convento de Cristo, constructed under the orders of Gualdim de Pais, the fourth grand master of the Knights Templar in the late 12th century. Tomar is one of Portugal’s historical jewels and, more significantly, was the last Templar town to be commissioned for construction. Tomar was especially important in the 15th century when it was a center of Portuguese overseas expansion under Henry the Navigator, the Grand Master of the Order of Christ, successor organization to the Templars in Portugal.
Serra da Estrela
Serra da Estrela is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal. Together with the Serra da Lousã it is the westernmost constituent range of the Sistema Central and also one of the highest in the system. It includes mainland Portugal’s highest point at 1,993 metres (6,539 feet) above mean sea level (although the summit of Mount Pico in the Portuguese Azores islands is higher). This point is not a distinctive mountain summit, but rather the highest point in a plateau, being known as Torre (“Tower” in English). Torre is an unusual summit in that it is accessible by a paved road. The peak has a topographic prominence of 1,204 m (3,950 ft) and its parent peak is Pico Almanzor, in Spain.
Sintra is a town and municipality in the Greater Lisbon region of Portugal, located on the Portuguese Riviera. The population of the municipality in 2011 was 377,835, in an area of 319.23 square kilometres (123.26 sq mi). The area includes the Sintra-Cascais Nature Park through which the Sintra Mountains run. The historic center of the Vila de Sintra is famous for its 19th-century Romanticist architecture, historic estates and villas, gardens, and royal palaces and castles, which resulted in the classification of the town as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sintra’s landmarks include the mediaeval Castle of the Moors, the romanticist Pena National Palace and the Portuguese Renaissance Sintra National Palace.